1. Why did European nations compete for overseas empires during the late nineteenth century?
They did it for their economy and prestige. They wanted to be the biggest and get lots of money from expanding and taking new lands to get more resources.
2. How did imperialists gain control of Africa?
First they sent explorers into the heart of Africa to find where good resources and locations were. Then they all decided on land to take. They then went into Africa with troops. Some villages resisted such as the Zulu. They held their own for a while before being taken over.
3. How did the British come to dominate South Asia?
They at first controlled most of East Asia for trade routes. While scrambling for Africa the British also were controlling modern day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc.
4. How did European imperialism affect China?
At first China had a stable amount of food and resources so they were not interested in trading. They tried to set up illegal trading routes to get Europeans into China. This caused the Opium war where China was humiliated by Britain. This showed that the nation was weak. This allowed foreign nations to gain entrance. China’s leaders were forced to accept European dominance. Britain and Germany then set up “spheres of influence.” They gained a region to control and develop their own business interests. China went into turmoil. During the 1850’s peoples anger and hunger led to a Civil war called the Taiping Rebellion. 20 million people perished in this revolt. With Britain’s help the Emperor’s still staid in power. Some officials still wanted China to modernize. USA didn’t want China to be divided up, so they declared the “Open Door Policy.” Which was sought to protect their interests.
5. How did Japan react to European imperialism?
Japan was more resistant of western influence than China. This changed when Mathew Perry entered Japan. The made a treaty and the leaders began to plan the modernization of Japan. What followed was intense industrial development. Japanese leaders travelled to learn everything about western culture. In 30 years Japan became an industrial giant. Japan made their military, and its navy with help from other countries. As a new imperialistic power Japan sought territories and spheres of influence in Asia. Quarrels with Russia started the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-1905. Their stunning victory enabled Japan to take over Korea, and dominate Manchuria. Japan became a great power.
6. How did imperialism develop in the Western Hemisphere?
Almost all European countries started to become imperialistic and take over territories around the world. All Western countries wanted to make spheres of influence, and take over land. They mostly did this for economic growth, but also for the bragging rights.
Define the following vocabulary words: imperialism, sepoy, sphere of influence, and intervention
Imperialism: The policy of extending rule and or influence of one country over other countries or colonies using economic influence, or military force.
Sepoy: An Indian soldier serving in the military of British or other European orders
Sphere of influence: A country or area where another country affects its development but has no formal authority.
Intervention: Interference by another country in another’s affairs.